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Second Battle of El Alamein
El Alamein
Conflict: World War II
Date: 23 October-11 November 1942
Place: El Alamein, Egypt
Outcome: British victory
Combatants

Nazis Nazi Germany
Flag of Italy 2 Italy

UK United Kingdom
British Indian Army British Raj
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of South Africa 2 South Africa
Free French Free French
Flag of Greece Greece

Commanders

Nazis Erwin Rommel
Nazis Georg Stumme
Nazis Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma
Flag of Italy 2 Ettore Bastico

UK Bernard Montgomery
UK Harold Alexander

Strength

116,000 troops

195,000 troops

Casualties

59,000 losses

13,560 losses

The Second Battle of El Alamein occurred from 23 October to 11 November 1942 when the German Afrika Korps under Erwin Rommel began an attack on the British Eighth Army at El Alamein in northern Egypt, just 60 miles northwest of the Egyptian capital of Cairo. The Germans and their Italian allies were defeated by the British general Bernard Montgomery, who more than proved his genius as a general. After El Alamein, the Axis forces began to fight a defensive war, ending with the surrender of the last Axis forces in Tunisia on 12 May 1943.

In August 1943, Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps invaded Egypt, having used blitzkrieg tactics to drive the British out of Libya. The Germans were forced to halt their advance after the British fought them to a standstill at the Alam Halfa Ridge, and the newly-appointed British general Bernard Montgomery decided to intensively train his forces and prepare for a counterattack. On the night of 23-24 October 1942, 900 British guns fired a preliminary barrage against the Axis forces at El Alamein, and Rommel's deputy Georg Stumme died of an apparent heart attack. Rommel launched several failed counterattacks against the British, but the attacks were repelled by the British. By 4 November, the Axis forces were in full retreat, and the British won a great victory, forcing the Axis forces to retreat into Libya.

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