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The Russian Federation is a federation of 85 federal subjects that spans both Europe and Asia, stretching from the Black Sea and Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. Russia's capital has been Moscow for centuries, and Russia has been a collection of republics and federal subjects since the time of the Soviet Union (USSR), during which the USSR was composed of several Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs), Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs), and Oblasts. On 25 December 1991, Russia was left as the largest of the post-Soviet states after the breakup of the USSR at the end of the Cold War, and it currently consists of multiple federal subjects of several cultures. Russia is considered to be a rising superpower due to the decline of the United States, and Russia has been feared due to the power of its dictator Vladimir Putin and its alliances with North Korea, China, Iran, and Syria. Russia was involved in controversial wars in Chechnya in the 1990s-2010s and Ukraine in the 2010s, and Russia also contributed its air force and special forces to the Syrian Civil War to help the Syrian Arab Army; Russia was more interventionist in world matters than the USA at times. As of 2016, Russia rivalled the United States as the strongest country in the world, causing international concern.


Russia had a population of 144,192,450 people in 2016, with 80.9% being Russians, 3.9% Tatars, 1.4% Ukrainians, 1.15% Bashkirs, 1.05% Chuvashes, 1.04% Chechens, .86% Armenians, .66% Avars, .54% Mordvins, .47% Kazakhs, .44% Azeris, .43% Dargins, .4% Udmurts, .4% Mari, .38% Ossetians, .38% Belarusians, .38% Kabardians, .37% Kumyks, .35% Yakuts, .34% Lezgians, .34% Buryats, .32% Ingushes, .29% Germans, .21% Uzbeks, .19% Tuvans, .17% Komi, .16% Karachays, .15% Roma, .15% Tajiks, .13% Kalmyks, .13% Laks, .11% Georgians, .11% Jews, .11% Moldovans, .11% Koreans, .09% Tabasarans, .08% Circassians, .08% Balkars, .08% Turks, .08% Nogais, .07% Kyrgyz, .06% Komi-Permyak, .06% Altays, .05% Pontic Greeks, .05% Adyghes, .04% Khakas, .03% Karelians, .03% Poles, .03% Nenets, .03% Abazas, .03% Yazidis, .03% Evenks, .03% Turkmens, and very small minorities such as Rutuls, Aghuls, Lithuanians, Khanty, Chinese, Bulgarians, Kurds, Evens, Finns, Latvians, Estonians, Chukchi, Vietnamese, Gagauz, Shors, Tsakhurs, Mansi, Nanais, Abhkazians, Assyrians, Arabs, Nagaybak, Koryaks, Dolgans, Veps, Afghans, Meskhetian Turks, Nivkh, Udis, Indians, Shapsugs, Iranians, Uyghurs, Selkups, Soyots, Serbs, Romanians, Itelmeni, Mongols, Kumandins, Hungarians, Ulchs, Teleuts, Talysh, Crimean Tatars, Besermyan, Hemshins, Kamchadals, Czechs, Sami, Dungans, Eskimos, Yukaghirs, Tats, Udege, French, Karakalpaks, Italians, Ket, Spanish, Slovenes, Chuvans, English, Japanese, Nganasans, Tofalars, Orochs, Negidals, Aleuts, Pamiris, Chulyms, Macedonians, Slovaks, Croats, Oroks, Taz, Izhorians, Bosnians, Enets, Ruthenians, Karaites, Montenegrins, Krymchaks, Vods, Kereks, Dagestanis, and Siberians. Russian is the main language of these groups. In 2012, 41% of the population was Russian Orthodox Christian, 6.5% Muslim, 4.1% unaffiliated Christian, 1.5% other Orthodox faiths, 1.2% pagans or Tengris, .5% Tibetan Buddhists, 1.7% other religions, 25% agnostic, 13% atheist, and 5.5% undecided.