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Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is an Arab monarchy located on the Arabian Peninsula, bordering Saudi Arabia and having a maritime border with Bahrain, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates. It has been under the rule of the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Following a period of Ottoman rule, it became a protectorate of the United Kingdom and later declared independence in 1971. It is a mix between absolute and constitutional monarchy, with a constitution but a strong ruler. The majority of its population of nearly 2,000,000 people are foreigners.

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