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The Arab Republic of Egypt is an Afro-Asiatic country located on the border of Asia with Africa; the Sinai Peninsula links Africa to the Middle East. Its capital is Cairo, and it has 87,269,564 people.


On 18 June 1953, the Kingdom of Egypt was overthrown by the Free Officers Movement of Gamal Abdel Nasser and Egypt became a republic. Nasser was the dictator of Egypt from 1953 until his death in 1970, ruling Egypt as his own country. Egypt attempted to form an Arab nation by creating the United Arab Republic union with Syria, but this quickly failed due to Egypt's dominance in the alliance. Nasser's rule saw Egypt repel a British, French, and Israeli invasion in 1956 in the Suez Crisis, but they lost the 1967 Six-Day War and the West Bank was taken over by Israel.

After the death of Nasser in 1970, Vice-President Anwar Sadat took power without elections; there were no terms for Nasser's power, as he was a dictator. Egypt resumed its violent campaigns against Israel in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War, but the latter defeat in 1973 led to Egypt recognizing Israel's sovereignty in the 1977 Camp David Accords in the United States. That same year, Sadat defeated an invasion by Libya.

Anwar Sadat was assassinated in 1981 by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad due to his recognition of Israel and Hosni Mubarak became the new dictator of Egypt, killing all of the collaborators in the assassination and taking power himself. Egypt's population grew to 72,798,000 in 2006, and Egypt's government remained strong. However, the Muslim Brotherhood party rose in influence over the Egyptian Conservative Party.


From 1953 to 2013, Egypt was ruled by the Egyptian Conservative Party/Urabist Faction. In January 2001, the Conservative Party had a 41.42% majority; the Egyptian Fascist Party had 6.21%, the Muslim Brotherhood had 4.1%, the Egyptian Reactionary Party had 7.97%, the Egyptian Socialist Party had 11.39%, the Egyptian Communist Party had 1%, the Egyptian Liberal Party had 9.88%, and the Egyptian Anarcho-Liberal Party had 1%.