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Carthage was a city-state in present-day Tunisia that ruled over a vast empire stretching from Libya to Morocco in North Africa and including southern Spain, the Balearic Isles, Sardinia, Corsica, and half of Sicily. Carthage was centered at the city of Carthage, settled by the Phoenicians in 814 BCE, and the Phoenician-descended Carthaginians expanded since independence in 650 BCE. Its conflicts with the Greek Cities and Roman Republic over trade led to wars with them, with the Punic Wars with Rome seeing Carthage being defeated and losing all of its lands to the Romans. In 146 BCE, Carthage was defeated by Scipio Aemilianus in the Third Punic War, and the city of Carthage was destroyed by the Romans, ending the city-state. Afterwards, Carthage (known as Carthago in Latin) served as a city of the Roman Empire in North Africa, and it would become a suburb and then a part of Tunis in later centuries.

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