The 1993 Bogota shopping center bombing occurred on 30 January 1993 when Pablo Escobar's Medellin Cartel detonated 220 pounds of C4 plastic explosives in a car in a busy downtown shopping center of the Colombian capital of Bogota. The bombing killed at least 20 people, four of them children, while around 70 were badly injured. The attack was carried out after Escobar issued several threats to kill German citizens or bomb Lufthansa planes and German cities in response to Germany's refusal of entry to his family at the insistence of President Cesar Gaviria of Colombia. Escobar phoned his henchman Blackie and told him to use the biggest bomb that he could make to bomb an area close to the Presidential Palace to warn the president, and the attack killed and wounded 90+ innocent people. The whole nation was enraged, and the government redoubled its efforts to catch Escobar, who refused to surrender until his family was ushered out of the country. Attorney-General Gustavo de Greiff believed that Escobar was out of control, and Escobar lost all of the popularity that he once had as his organization crumbled.